Clauses and Rules of Clause with Examples – PDF Download
In this post we are discussing Clause of English Grammar which is very important in the point view of Exams.
What are Clause ?
A group of word(Finite Verb or subject) that forms part of a sentence, and has a subject and predicate of its own (meaning itself) is known as Clause. For Example: He Plays Cricket Regularly ,
Types of Clause
There are three Kind of Clause.
(i). Principal Clause :
Principal clause is the main clause of the whole sentence. Or the clause that can stand on its meaning ,its meaning is clear without the help of any other clauses. For Example : I went away the boy was weeping.
(ii). Sub-ordinate Clause
A sub-ordinate clause can not stand on its own. It is dependent on the Main clause(Principal Clause), to makes it meaning clear. There are some Sub-ordinate conjunction through which a Sub-ordinate clause may begin -“ So much so, that, When, Where , Which , What, How, Whom, Whose, Whether, If , Provided, Provided that, Notwithstanding, as, as if, as though, as much as, as far as, as soon as, as long as, so long as, according to, after, before, because, until, unless, for, in that, than that, now that, though, so that, in order that, wherever etc“.
For Example : I met the man who came yesterday.
One “I met the man” and second “who came yesterday” , Now, the second sentence begins with the Sub-ordinate clause Who, that is why , this is sub-ordinate clause.
Types of Sub-ordinate Clause
Sub-ordinate Clause is of three types
(i). Noun Clause
Noun Clause is a group of words having subject and verbs , but it acts the work of nouns. It begins with the three connectives (that, where, who). For Example : He said that he was not guilty.
It performs following five functions.
(a.) As a subject of a verb. For Example: Where he lives is known to me.
“where he lives” is the subject of is.
(b). As Object of a transition Verb. For Example: He told me that he was going to Kolkata.
“that he was going to Kolkata” is the object of the verb “told”.
(c). As the Object of a preposition. For example: Give full attention to what I say.
“what I say ” is the object of the preposition “to”.
(d). As a complement to a Verb. For Example: My great fear is that he may drown.
“that he may drown” is the complement to the Verb “is“.
(e).As Case in Apposition to a Noun. For Example: The report that the enemy is coming is wrong.
“that the enemy is coming” is case in apposition to the noun “report”.
(ii). Adjective Clause
Adjective Clause is one which does the work of an adjective(qualifies a noun or Pronoun) in relation to some other clause.
Rules of Adjective Clause
Adjective Clause begins with a relative Pronoun or a Relative adverb , provided the Pronoun or Adverb has its antecedent immediately before. For Example : This is the boy who stole my fountain pen.
In this “ who stole my fountain” is an Adjective Clause because it begins with the Relative Pronoun who and its Antecedent “boy” has been used immediately before it.
Sometimes, the Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb with which the adjective clause begins, remain understood. In such a case the relative Pronoun / Relative Adverb should mentally added from your side before attempting analysis. For Example: (i). He is the man λ I know very well.
In this sentence, “whom” is understood at the point marked at “λ” Therefore “I know very well is an adjective clause.
(ii). Return the book λ I gave you.
In this sentence , “that” is understood by λ, so “I gave you” is an adjective clause.
Sometimes “But” is used as Relative Pronoun, which is negative in meaning. In such a case , the clause beginning with “but”is an adjective clause. For Example : (i). There was not a soldier but fought bravely to the end.
In this sentence “but” means “who did not” and therefore but “fought bravely” is an adjective caluse.
(ii). There was no man but loves his country. ( here” but” means “who does not” , so but “loves his country ” is an adjective clause.)
Sometimes “than” is used as a preposition before a relative Pronoun. In such a case, the clause beginning with “than”is a Relative Pronoun. For Example : We are followers of Mahatma Gandhi than whom India has produced no nobler saint.
In this sentence “than whom” means “in whose comparison” therefore the clause beginning with “than” is an adjective clause.
(iii). Adverb clause
An adverb clause is one which does the work of an adverb to some Verb, Adjective or Adverb (qualifies some Verbs, Adverb or Adjective ) in some other clause.
It has following adverbial functions
(a). Adverb Clause of Time : It shows time and begins with Adverbs of times ‘when’ , “Whenever”, “While”, “After”, “Since”, “Before”, “As”. etc. For example: I shall go with you when you return from Kanpur.
In this sentence , “when you return you from Kanpur ” is an Adverb clause because it shows times.
(b). Adverb Clause of Place : It points to place an begins with adverbs of place “Where”, “Wherever”, “Whence”, “Whither” etc. For Example :(i). You should stand where you are. ( In this sentence, “where you are ” is an adverb clause because it points to place.)
(ii). Return at once whence you came.
(c). Adverb Clause of Purpose : It points to purpose and begins with that, so that, lest etc. For Example:
(i) He worked very hard that he may pass. ( “that he may pass” is an adverb clause because it shows purpose.)
(ii). Go quickly lest you should miss the train. ( “lest you should miss the trains” is an adverb clause because it shows purpose).
(d). Adverb Clause of Cause or Reason : It points to cause or reason and begins with “Because”, “Since “, As”, “For”, that” etc. For Example:(i). I must take rest because i am tired. ( “because i am tired” is an adverb clause because it shows reasons.)
(ii). I am glad that you have come in time. ( “that you have come in time” is an adverb clause because it shows reason)
(e). Adverb Clause of Condition : It shows condition and begins with “If, whether, unless, Provided, on Condition. etc. For Example: (i). I shall go if you come in time. ( “Adverb Clause”)
(ii). You must go whether you receive my reply or not. ( “whether you receive my reply or not” is an adverb clause.)
(f). Adverb Clause of Result : It points to ‘result” and often begins with ‘that’ preceded by ‘so’ or ‘such’. it can also begins with ‘therefore’. For Example : (i).He worked so hard that he secured 1st division. ( ‘that he secured’1st division’ is an adverb clause.)
(ii). I worked hard, therefore i passed.
(g). Adverb Clause of Comparison : there are two kinds of Adverb clause of Comparison.
=> Adverb Clause of Comparison of degrees: It shows comparison of state or situation and often begins with Sub ordinate Conjunction ” than” or Relative Adverb ” As”. For Example: (i). he is not so foolish as his father thinks. ( ” as his father thinks” is an adverb clause of comparison of Degree.)
(ii). Your heart is better than it was before.
=> Adverb Clause of Comparison of Manner : It shows comparison of manner, often begins with the Relative Adverb ‘ As’. For Example: (i). As you earn so you spend. ( ‘ As you earn ‘ is adverb clause of Comparison of Manner.)
(h). Adverb clause of Supposition : It points to some supposition and often begins with sub-ordinate conjunction ‘ Though’ , ‘ Although’ or ‘ Even if’ etc. For example: Although he was tired, finished the work before sunset. (‘Although was tired is an adverb clause of supposition.)
(iii). Co-ordinate Clause
A Co-ordinate clause is also an self dependent clause and its meaning is also clear without help of any other clause. It is Independent clause. Some co-ordinate conjunction are ” And, but, etc. For Example:(i). I went to the market and i purchased a book. ( ‘ and i purchased a book’ is an co-ordinate clause.)
(ii). I offered to help him but he declined. ( ‘ but he declined is a co-ordinate clause.)
Rules of Co-ordinates Clause
Sometimes co-ordinate connective remains understood. In that case the comma(,) or Semi-colon(;) does the work of connective conjunction. Sometimes , Verbs also remain understood. For Example: (i). his life is simple; his thoughts is sublime.
(ii). Beauty is truth, truth beauty.
Sometimes a co-ordinates clause may begin with the sub-ordinate conjunction. For example : (i) I shall meet you tomorrow, when we shall finalize the plan. ( In this sentence’ when’ means ‘ and then’ So, the clause beginning with ‘when’ co-ordinate clause.
(ii). I found a purse, which i brought home. ( In this sentence, ‘ Which’ means ‘ which’.)
Sometimes compound sentences are written in their contracted form, and only one verb is used for both the verbs. for Example: (i) He is rich but unhappy. ( In this sentence, ‘ but unhappy’ is the contracted form of ‘ but he is unhappy’ So, this is a co-ordinate clause.)
(ii). Either you must pay or your father. ( In this sentence, ‘or your father ‘ means ‘or your father must pay’.)
Sometimes a co-ordinate clause may begin with either…..or, neither…..nor, else, otherwise. For Example : (i). Either work hard or give up your studies.
(ii). Neither you nor your father will get any help.
Clause and Its Types With Examples PDF
Candidates can view and download the Clause and Its type with example pdf by clicking on below link.
All the best for your upcoming exam!
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