Pronoun and Its Kinds With Examples PDF | Rules of Pronoun
A word used in place of Noun is called a Pronoun. In order to avoid repetition of a noun in a sentence, pronoun is used. Example, Mrs. Shukla, being a good teacher, she is liked by all the students. (remove ‘she’) ‘She’ is a pronoun and must be used in place of the Noun (Mrs. Shukla) and not with the noun.
Kinds of Pronouns
1. Personal Pronouns : Pronouns that stands for three person. I, my, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, it, they, them.
2. Possessive pronouns: Pronouns that shows possession. Mine, our, yours, his, her, theirs.
3 Demonstrative Pronouns: Words used for Nouns to point something / someone. This, that, these, those.
4. Distributive Pronouns: Words used for individual or Objects referring to them as one at a time. Each, either, neither, every, none.
5. Reciprocal Pronouns: Each other, One another.
6. Reflexive Pronouns: Myself, Our selves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, it selves, themselves, oneself.
7. Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronouns: Such pronouns are used to lay stress on the subject. For Example Myself, Our selves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, it selves, themselves, one selves. For Example
You, Yourself –are responsible for your problems.
He hurt himself.
8. Indefinite Pronouns: Words used for nouns in vague or general meaning. Everybody, somebody, nobody, anybody, everybody, someone, no one, anyone, everything, something, nothing, anything, all, some, any, both, another, much, few, little.
9. Relative Pronouns: Words used for nouns to show them ‘relating to’. Who, Whom, Whose, Which, that, etc.
10. Interrogative Pronouns: Words used for nouns to ask question. Who, Whom, Whose, Which etc.
Use of Personal Pronoun
They are used as First Person, Second Person and Third Person. they are called personal Pronoun.
Verb is preceded by Nomination Form of pronoun and followed by Objective Case. For Example
I teach him. (Active Voice) – where ‘I’ is subject and ‘teach’ is a verb and ‘him’ is an object.
He is taught by me. (Passive Voice). – Now it is reversed.
If all the three person or two out of three persons come in a single sentence, the order is 231. For example
(i) You, he and I shall study for the exam. (231)
(ii) You and he have done a great job. (231)
(iii) He and I have finished our work.(231)
If all the three persons or two out of three persons come in a single sentence and something wrong is talked about or some mistake done by the persons has been accepted, the order is 123. For Example
(i) I, you and he made a mistake. (123)
(ii) Yes and he done this mischief. (123)
If Pronoun are in plural form, the order should be 123. For Example
We., You and they should now get down to work.
An Objective case comes after ‘let’ , ‘like’, ‘between…………and’, ‘but’, ‘except’, and all ‘preposition’. For Example
(i) Let me do this work.
(ii)There is no problem between she and I. (×)
There is no problem between her and me. (✓)
(iii) Everybody but him was present for the meeting. (✓)
(iv) He laughed at I. (×)
(v) He laughed at me. (✓)
(vi) Everyone attended the party except he. (×)
Everyone attended the party except him. (✓)
If there is a comparison between two nominative cases. the pronoun of the nominative case is used after as / than. For Example
(i) He is as fast as me. (×) [Where ‘me’ is an objective case]
(ii) He is as fast as I. (✓) [Where ‘I’ is a nominative case]
(iii) I run faster than him. (×) [Where ‘me’ is an objective case]
(iv) I run faster than he. (✓) [Where ‘I’ is a nominative case]
(v) I know you as much as him. (✓) [Sentence 5 means that ‘I know you as much as I know him’.]
From the above example it is clear that the subject is compared with the subject and object is compared with an object.
If a sentence begins with ‘It’ followed by any form ‘be‘ the pronoun that follows ‘be‘ must be in nominative case. For Example
(i) It is I who am to blame. [Where ‘I’ is Nominative Case.]
Uses of ‘It’
‘It‘ is used for non-living things, animals, infants and insects. This is the plural from of it. For Example
(i) America is a developed country. It is a super power.
(ii) Srilanka and Pakistan are developing countries. They are facing internal terrorism.
‘It‘ is used to denote time, weather, temperature, distance or any other natural event.It is used only as introductory subject In this case, it is called ’empty it’ as it has no meaning. For Example
(i) It is raining
(ii) It is morning
(iii) It is Winter
(iv) It is 6 o’clock.
(v) It is March.
(vi) It is Monday.
It is also used in Infinite Clause and Gerund. For Example
(i) It is easy to solve it.
(ii) It is said that virtue its own reward.
‘It‘ is used in a sentence as a subject to emphasize the noun or the pronoun. For Example
(i) It was he who made this mistake.[Where ‘he’ is a pronoun]
‘It’ is used to introduce a phrase or clause. For Example
(i) That the record will break today is probable. [Where ‘That the record will break today‘ is probable]
Difference Between ‘This’ and ‘It’
‘This’ is used to point towards a person or thing or for the introduction of a person or when the singular object or person is placed at a near distance. Here, ‘it’ will not come.
Example : (i) This is a book.
(ii) This is a pen.
(iii) This is Rohan, my cousin.
=> It denotes the time / distance / weather. Here ‘this’ is not used for this purpose.
(i) It is 10 a.m
(ii) It is winter.
(iii) It is night.
Note: A Noun can be used after ‘this‘. For Example
This book is mine. [Where book is noun]
‘It’ is a pronoun and hence a noun can not be used after ‘it’ as ‘Pronoun’ and ‘noun’ can not come together.
(i) It book is mine (×)
It is my book. (✓)
‘It‘ is used for singular noun/non-living thing or an infant.
E.g. : 1. It is a splendid moment.
2. The baby is cute but it is crying a lot.
|Nominative Case||Possessive Adjective||Possessive Pronoun|
Use of Possessive Pronoun
Possessive Pronouns are not used before nouns. For Example
Ours School was closed for four days. (×) [Where ‘school’ is a noun]
Our School was closed for four days. (✓)
Note: (i) Possessive Adjectives are used before nouns. For Example
E.g.: This is My Book.
(ii) If the noun has already been mentioned, possessive pronoun is used to avoid repetition. For Example
This book is mine.
|Possessive Pronouns||Meaning (Possessive Adjectives + Nouns)|
|My||My + Noun|
|Ours||Our + Noun|
|Yours||Your + Noun|
|His||His + Noun|
|Hers||Her + Noun|
|Theirs||Theirs + Noun|
(iii) ‘His’ is used as both possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronoun.
(iv) ‘ Its ‘ is used as possessive Adjectives but not as possessive Pronouns.
Possessive Pronouns can be used in any sentence as the subject of the verb. For Example
(i) Yours is a new car. [Where ‘is’ = subject of verb]
Meaning : Your car is new car.
(b) Hers is a beautiful house. [Where ‘is’ = subject of verb]
Possessive Pronoun can be used as an Object of a Verb. For Example
(i) He has lost my books as well as yours. [Where ‘has lost‘ is a verb.]
Meaning – He has lost my books as well as yours.
(ii) Save your time and mine too. [‘mine’ is an object.]
Possessive Pronoun can be used as the object of a preposition. For Example
(i) I prefer you to help to her. (×) [Where ‘to’ is a preposition and ‘her’ is an object.]
I prefer your help to hers. (✓)
We do not use possessive pronoun with separators, leave, excuse, mention, report, pardon, sight, favour. For Example
(i) Your separation is very painful to me. (Use ‘separation from me‘)
(ii) At his sight the robbers fled. (‘At the sight of him‘ is right)
(iii) I need your favour please. ( Use ‘favour of you / favour from you’)
(iv) She did make mention of you. (✓)
In Possessive Pronouns, apostrophe is not used before ‘s’. The use of your’s, her’s, it’s is wrong.
E.g.: (i) The bear had a ring around it’s nose. (×)
The bear had a ring around its nose. (✓)
Gerund is used after Possessive Adjective. In such cases never use Possessive Pronoun or Objective case of Pronoun.
E.g.: (a) I was confident of my winning the match.
(b) She was not confident of her doing well in the examination.
(c) She is sure of my/my/me/mine helping others. (‘my’ is the correct choice)
if Collective Noun is used as a subject, and it denotes separate individuals or a division, is showing among a members. It is considered Plural and hence Plural Pronoun and plural adjective / pronoun They, Them, Their, theirs, themselves, are used with them. For Example
(i) The team are divided in its opinion.(×)
The team are divided in their opinion.(✓)
When two subjects are joined by ‘either…………Or, Neither………Nor, Not only………but also, none…….but, the possessive adjectives / pronoun agrees with the nearest subject. For Example
(i) Neither the staff members nor the manager was taking his task seriously.
If two or more nouns two singular noun are joined by ‘and’ plural pronoun and plural adjective they, them, their, theirs, themselves are used. For example
(i) Ram and Shyam do their work.
If two singular noun are joined by ‘and’ and if an article is used before the first singular noun , it denotes one person / thing, here singular Pronoun and adjectives –he, him , his, himself will come for human being and it, its, itself will come for non-living things. For Example
(i) The secretary and treasurer is negligent of their duty..(×)
The secretary and treasurer is negligent of his duty.(✓)
When each, either, neither, anyone, every is used as a subject. 3rd person singular is used as the possessive case. For Example
(i) Neither of the two brother has brought their luggage.( Change ‘their’ into ‘his’)
(ii) Each one is doing our duty properly. ( Change ‘Our’ into ‘his’)
Use of Demonstrative Pronoun
Demonstrative case is used to point towards a noun / nouns. This, that, Those, these, such , the same. If they come before the noun, they are called demonstrative Pronoun.
‘This’ is used for a singular object / person that is placed closer. ‘This’ is singular. ‘These’ is plural. ‘These’ is used for more than one Object / person that are placed far. For Example
(i) This is a Cat.
(ii) These are cats.
‘That’ is used for a distant thing / person. ‘That’ is singular. ‘Those’ is used for more than two things or person.’Those’ is plural. For Example
(i) That is a book.
(ii) Those are books.
Note: To avoid repetition of a Singular noun ‘That’ is used. In case of a plural noun ‘Those’ is used. For Example
(i) The Climate of Pune is better than that of Mumbai. ( It means climate of Mumbai. )
(ii) The streets of Delhi are wider than those of Mumbai. ( It means the streets of Mumbai. )
In an sentence, ‘ one’ is used to avoid the repetition of singular countables noun. ‘ One ‘ is used to avoid the repetition of plural countables noun. Do not use one’s in place of ones. For example
(i) This is the new version, that is an old one.
(ii) These are new books but those are old ones.
Use of Distributive Pronoun
Either denotes choice between two. For Example
(i) Either if these three friends are naughty. (×)
(ii) Either of these two pens is red. (✓)
Note: ‘Any’ or ‘One’ is used to choose between many persons or things. For Example
(i) One of these boys is naughty. (✓)
‘Neither’ denoted ‘ None out of two things / persons. For Example
(i) Neither of two girls is active. (✓)
Note: ‘None’ denotes ‘ none out of more than two things / persons.’ For Example
(i) Neither of his four sons looked after him. (×)
None of his four sons looked after him. (✓)
Use of Reciprocal Pronoun
‘ Each other’ and ‘One another ‘ are called reciprocal Pronoun. They denote mutual relationship.
Each other denotes mutual relationship between people / things While one another denotes mutual relationship between more than two things / persons. For Example
(i) he was so afraid that his knee knocked one another. ( Use each other in place of One another. )
(ii) After the farewell the students of class XII bade each other good bye. ( use one another in place of each other. )
Use of Reflexive Pronouns
E.g.: The poor man poisoned himself and his children.
Use Reflexive Pronoun after acquit, avail, reconcile, amuse, resign, avenge, exert, apply, adapt, adjust, pride’, absent and enjoy.
(a) The officers acquitted themselves well during the crisis.
(b) She has reconciled herself to the demands of her in-laws.
(i) They enjoyed the party. ( No need of Reflexive Pronoun. )
(ii) They enjoyed during vacation. ( Use ‘ Themselves’ after enjoyed )
If the enjoyed is followed by an object, we do not use a reflexive pronoun, but if the object is not mentioned, then we use a reflexive pronoun.
Keep, Stop, Turn, Quality, bathe, move, Rest, and hide b do not take a reflexive pronoun. For Example
(i) You should keep yourself away from bad boys. ( remove Yourself)
(ii) He hid himself in the room. ( Remove Himself )
Reflexive Pronoun can not be used as a subject or an object in a sentence unless a noun / pronoun comes before it. For Example
(i) Myself ram from Delhi. ( ” I am Ram from Delhi is correct” )
(ii) I myself did this work.
(iii) Rohit will do the work for myself. ( Use ‘ me’ )
Use of Indefinite Pronoun
If ‘one ‘ is used as the subject, nominative case ‘one‘ and objective pronoun ‘oneself ‘ is used. For Example
(i) One should do one’s duty oneself.
(ii) One should keep one’s promise.
Use of Relative Pronoun
Those pronoun that connect a clause or Phrase to a noun or a pronoun is called a relative Pronoun. For Example – who, which What That , why, etc.
(i) I met Veena, Who was returning from school.
Relative Pronouns ( Which / That / Who ) are used as a subject in subordinate clause. For example
(i) The boy who came here is a player.
Relative Pronoun ( Which / that/ Whom ) are used as Object in Subordinate Clause. For Example
(i) I have a son Whom I love very much.
If two antecedent are joined by ‘and’ one being a human and the other being a non-living thing / animal, a Relative Pronoun ‘That’ is used. For Example
(i) The man and his Dog That I saw yesterday have been kidnapped.
‘That’is used after a Superlative degree. For Example
(i) Mr. Mishra is the Most Laborious man that i have ever seen.
If ‘Áll ‘ denotes people and is used as a subject, who or that’ is used and not ‘Whom / Which. ‘ For example
(i) All who / that are interested to do this work can start now.
If ‘All’ denotes the non-living things, ‘that‘ is used and not ‘who or Whom’. For Example
(i) All That glitters is not gold.
Note: All + Uncountable Noun is followed by ‘That’ . For Example
(i) All the money that i gave her has been spent.
Everything, Nothing, the only, any, all, everyone, none, no, nobody, much, little, the same, the few, the little will take ‘that’ after him. For Example
(i) My father has given me everything that I needed.
(ii) My wife has spent the little money that I needed.
(iii) This is the only pen, that i bought yesterday.
If the verb is mentioned, the same + noun is followed by ‘that’. For Example
(i) This is the same men that deceived me.
Use of Interrogative Pronoun
Pronouns that are used for asking question are called Interrogative Pronouns. For Example who, whom, whose, which etc.
Who is used for Subject. For Example
(i) Who is playing ?
Whom is used for the Object. For example
(i) Whom has he invited ?
Whose is used to find out the owner. For Example
(i) Whose book is this ?
Preposition + Whom can be used but no preposition + who. For example
(i) By Whom was the Ramayana Written ?
Note: If the preposition is used at the end of a sentence, ‘who’ comes at the starting of a sentence. for Example
(i) Who was the Ramayana written By. ?
If choice is to be made between two or more, which is used. For Example
(i) Who is your brother in the crowd ? (×)
Which is your brother in the Crowd. ? (✓)
(ii) Who of the servant do you want ? (×)
Which of the servants do you want ? (✓)
‘ Whose ‘ is not used for non- living things. For Example
(i) Whose book is this ?
(ii) This the flyover, whose inauguration was done by the transport Minister. (×)
This is the flyover, the inauguration of which was done by the Transport Minister . (✓)
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