Babar Biography, History, Achievements and Facts PDF | Mughal Empire

Babar (1526-1530) Biography, History, Achievements and Facts PDF | Babar ka Jeevan Parichay | babar ka itihas

The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by Babar in 1526. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India has ruled over India many years. Mugals have ruled on India almost 300 years. Babar was born on 14th Feb 1483 in the town of Andijan in Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. He was descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengiz (from the side of his mother).

Ancestors of Babar

Babar's Ancestors

Early Life of Babar

He been the Mongol tribe that also embraced Turkish and Parsian. Babar is a Arabic word meaning tiger, the nickname to him because of his attitude shown in battle. Babar is said to have been born, extremely strong and physically fit. He could allegedly carry two men, one on each of his shoulders and then climb slopes on the run, just for exercise. Legend holds that Babar swam across every major river he encountered. At the age of 11, succeeded his father, Omar Sheikh Mirza.

1. Babar’s father was died in 1494 and Babar was made ruler of Uzbekistan. People of Uzbekistan understand it bad for making king to Babar as child at age 11, so they dethrone Babar from chair of king.

2. In 1501 – Sar-i-pool, Shaibani Khan, Uzbek has attacked on Babar and removed from the seat of Fergana and made himself as king of Fergana.

3. He moved to Kabul and in 1504, won the kabul and started to rule on Kabul. Three persons from Hindustan (Rana Sanga, Daulat Khan, Alam Khan) were watching this. Everyone was wanted to rule at Delhi.

4. Ibrahim lodhi was ruling at Delhi. Lodhi was having large army to which defeat was very difficult. Rana, Daulat, Alam have invited the Babar to fight with Lodhi for different-2 purposes. Ibrahim Lodhi was having more elephants.

5. In 1519-1524, Babar has attacked 4 times on India and won 4 states i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Peshawar, Multan.

6. Lodi’s army was more times than Babar’s army. Even though, Babar has also defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526 and established Mughal dynasty which lasted till the establishment of British rule in India. Babar has used the artillery – Canon and Telgana technique (shown in pic).

First Battle of Panipat, 1526

7. Rana Sanga of Mewar had fought 49 wars and army had lost 1 leg, 1 hand, 1 eye. Babar’s army was scared from army of Rana. Due to this, Babar has banned the wine and named war Jihad (i.e. fighting to save religions – Muslim). Rana Sanga was usually fought at elephants. In 1527, Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa.

8. In 1528, Babar defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi.

9. In 1529, he defeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) at Ghaghra.

10. Babar was the first ruler to entitle himself ‘Badshah’.

11. In 1530, he died at Aram Bagh, Agra. Later his body was taken to Kabul and made his tomb is at Kabul. Now, his son Humayun ruled over the India in place of Babar.

12. He adopted Tughluma and flanking party system and first to use gunpower and artillery in India.

13. He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki in which he gives an excellent account of India and his empire. Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated Persian (named Baburnama) by Abdur Rahim Khanekhana and in English by Madam Bevridge.

14.He compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) and Mubaiyan (in Persian). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters of Babar.

Full Name Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar
Nick Name Babar
Born 14 Feb, 1483 (Fergana, Uzbekistan)
Died December 26, 1530 (Agra, Mughal Empire)
Burried Kabul, Afghanistan
Reign 30 April 1526 – 26 December 1530
Religion Islam
Dynasty Timurid
Grandfather Miran Shah
Grandmother Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan
Father Umar Shaikh Mirza II, Amir of Farghana
Mother Qutlugh Nigar Khanum
Wives Aisha Sultan Begum, Zaynab Sultan Begum, Masuma Sultan Begum, Maham Begum, Dildar Begum, Gulnar Aghacha, Gulrukh Begum, Mubarika Yousefzai
Son Humayun
Brother Genghis Khan
Successor Humayun
About Babar was a conqueror from Central Asia who established the Mughal dynasty in India. He was the first Mughal emperor.
Babarnama It is an autobiography of Babar. It was originally written in the Chagatai language.

Later in 1589 it was translated to Persian language by Abdul Rahim, a Mughal courtier.

Passion to kill people Babar liked to cut heads off people and create pillars out of these. He affirmed this in his autobiography also
Ascension In 1495 Babar became the ruler of Farghana, succeeding his father.
Siege on Samarkand In 1501, soon after Babar had laid siege on Samarkand, Muhammad Shaybani attacked and defeated him.
Formation of Mughal Empire In 1519, Babar reached Chenab.

In 1524, Babar discovered that Daulat Khan Lodi was expelled by an Afghan Chief. Babar attacked the Chief and defeated him. Later he appointed Ala-ud-Din as Governor of Lahore.

First battle of Panipat On 20 April 1526 Babar met Ibrahim Lodi on the battleground of Panipat.

The battle of Panipat began on 21 April 1526. Ibrahim Lodi’s army was surrounded by Babar. Babar army opened fire and dealt huge damage. Lodi died during the battle.

The Lodi Dynasty ended with the death of Ibrahim Lodi.

Death Babar died on January 5, 1531. He was succeeded by Humayun. His body was moved to Kabul, Afghanistan.
Legacy Under the influence of the Persian, culture Babar expanded the Persianate ethos in India.

In Uzbekistan, Babar is traeted like a national hero.

In October 2005, the Babar Cruise Missile was developed by Pakistan in his honor.

Babri mosque It is believed that the Rama Temple at Ayodhya was demolished by Babar. Later he built Babri Mosque at the same place.

On 6 December 1992, the Karsevaks of Ramajanmabhumi movement demolished the Babri Masjid.

Monuments Panipat Mosque, Jama Masjid, Babri Mosque
Children Humayun, son

Kamran Mirza, son

Askari Mirza, son

Hindal Mirza, son

Fakhr-un-Nissa, daughter

Gulrang Begum, daughter

Gulbadan Begum, daughter

Gulchehra Begum, daughter

Altun Bishik, alleged son

Interests of Babar 

Babar, the Moghul had many interests.His memoir’s reflect that he had an interest in reading, society, hunting, nature, politics, economics. He had ideas about architecture, administration and civilisation. Although Babar ruled only four years, his love of nature led him to create gardens of great beauty which became an intrinsic part of every Mughal fort, palace and state buildings during the centuries that followed. While alive, Emperor Babar laid out the classical Moghul-style gardens located on a high point in west Kabul which comprised a series of beautiful landscaped hillside.

Arts and Architecture

Mughal Architecture influenced greatly in Babar’s rule. Mughal architecture under Babar was a beginning of an imperial movement, impressed by local influences. Babar’s elegant and stylish buildings evolved gradually because of the gifted artists in those provinces.

Babar constructed many mosques around India, mostly taken from desecrated Hindu temples. Three of the famous mosques are the Babri Mosque, The Panipat Mosqueand The Jama Masjid.

Babri Mosque

The Babri mosque was built in Ayodhya, a city of Faizabad. It was constructed in 1527-28. The Mosque was also called Masjid-i-Janmasthan with City of The Birthplace.

Babri Mosque, Gardens of Babur, Panipat Mosque

The Babari Mosque was one of largest mosques in Uttar Pradesh. The Babari Masjid was a large imposing structure with three domes, one central and two secondary. It is surrounded by two high walls, running parallel to each other and enclosing a large central courtyard with a deep well, which was known for its cold and sweet water. On the high entrance of the domed structure are fixed two stone tablets which bear two inscriptions in Persian declaring that this structure was built by one Mir Baqi on the order of Babar. The Mosque are made of coarse-grained whitish sandstone blocks while the domes are made of thin and burnt bricks. Both these structural ingredients are plastered with thick human paste mixed with coarse.


The Gardens of Babur locally called Bagh-e-Babur is a historic park in Kabul, Afghanistan and also the last resting-place of the first Mughal emperor Babar. The gardens are thought to have been developed around 1528 AD. The site of Bagh-e-Babur is thought to be that of “paradise”. It is one of several gardens that Babar had laid out for recreation and pleasure during his life, while choosing this site as his last resting place. Initially buried in Agra, later was laid out to rest in 1540 in the graden.

Panipat Mosque

The Kabuli Bagh Mosque in Panipat was built in 1527 by the emperor Babur to mark his victory over Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi at the first Battle of Panipat in 1526. The mosque located in Panipat is named after Kabuli Begum, Babar’s wife. Inscriptions indicate that the mosque was not set of well into motion. The structure of the mosque is now gone and the location was not found. The mosque has a rectangular prayer chamber which is dominated by a large central dome. The corners of the mosque have towers of octagonal shape on the northwest and south west directions.

Weakness of Babar

Babar the emperor did not have many weaknesses except that he was a strong addict alcohol and opium like his ancestors. Later, when Babar became very ill and was on his deathbed, many historians think that he became ill because of taking too much opium. Babar did not have any political nor religious weakness either.

Babar is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrogyzstan and is held in high esteem in Afghanistan where he is buried. In October 2005, the Pakistan military developed the Babar (cruise missile), named in honour of him.

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