Computer Network and Its Types | SSC, BANKS, DEFENCE

Computer Network and Its Type

Computer Network and Its Types

Computer Network

A Computer Network is an interconnection of various computers to share software, hardware and data through a communication medium between them.

A computer network includes, the network operating system in the client server machine, the cables, which connect different computers and all supporting hardware in between such as bridges, routers and switches. In wireless system, antennas and towers are also part of the network.

Types of Computer Network

Computer network are of three types.

i).  Local Area Network ( LAN ):   In LAN, computers are connected locally within a room, building or in a small area. A LAN can range from simple ( two computers ) to complex ( hundred of computers and peripherals ). LANs connect workstation and personal computers.

Local area network

User can share data as well as devices like printers, fax etc. and can use LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or chatting. Examples of LAN are technology: Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect ( FDDI ).

Characteristics of  Local Area Network(LAN)

  • High Speed
  • Low error rates
  • Data and hardware sharing between user.
  • Operates at speed ranging from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps.  Now a days 1000 Mbps are available.
  • Configured to small area
  • It supports limited number of users.

Advantages of Local Area Network ( LAN ):

  • Inexpensive transmission media
  • High data transmission rates
  • It is flexible
  • High Reliability
  • A high degree of interconnection between devices.
  • It allows file / record locking.

Disadvantages of Local Area Network ( LAN ):

  • The financial cost is high
  • Many current application programs will not run in a network environment.
  • Its software requires memory space in each of the computers used on the network.

ii ). Wide Area Network ( WAN ):  A Wide Area Network ( WAN )  provides long distance transmission of data, voice, image and video information over large geographical area that may comprise a country, a continent or even the whole world.


In this, the data is transmitted through a satellite or through  the telephone lines. Railway, Airline and Banking companies are example of such network.

Features of Wide Area Network(WAN)

  • It provides long distance transmission of data.
  • Physically Exposed
  • Facilitating Communication
  • Hybrid Technology are used.

Advantage of Wide Area Network(WAN)

  • It covers large geographical area. Hence, business offices situated at longer distances can easily communicate.
  • We can form Global Integrated network through WAN.
  • It allows sharing of resources among distributed workstations or users.

Disadvantages of Wide Area Network(WAN)

  • More Complexity
  • Less Reliable
  • Data transmission cost is very high.
  • Data transmission speed is low.

iii). Metropolitan Area Network ( MAN ):  Metropolitan Area Network is used for less than 50 km and provides regional connectivity within a small geographical area. It is designed to extend over an entire city. For example, a company can use a MAN to connect to the LANs in all of its offices through out a city.

Metropolitan Area network

Features of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

  • Size of MAN is smaller than WAN and Larger than LAN.
  • It is high speed Network that allows sharing of regional resources.
  • It is used to interconnect many LANs by bridging them backbone lines.
  • It is either owned by private or public.

Advantages of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

  • It requires fewer resources as compare to WAN. Thus saves the implementation cost.
  • It provides high security
  • It also offer centralized management  of data and files.
  • It helps people interface fast LANs together.

Disadvantages of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

  • It requires more cable for connection as compare to LAN.
  • It is difficult to make the system secure from protection.
  • It requires skilled technicians for installation.

All the best for your Exams !

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