Humayun History In Hindi and English PDF Download – Biography

Humayun History In Hindi and English PDF Download – Biography | Humayun History In Hindi pdf

Nasiruddin Humayun was a famous Mughal ruler. Birth of Humayun was from womb of Babar’s wife ‘Maham Begum’ in Kabul on 6th March, 1508. Babar has 4 sons – Humayun, Kamran, Askari, Hindal in which Humayun was the eldest. Babar has recruited the Babar as his successor of rule. In 1520 AD, before the Coronation (राज तिलक करना) in India, he was appointed a Badkhashan subedar in 12 years of short life. Humayun took part in all the operations of India, who were led by Babur as Badshakhan Subedar.

Full Name Nasiruddin Humayun
Family Name Timurid
Title Emperor of Mughal Empire
Birth March 6, 1508, Kabul
Death Feb 22, 1556, Delhi
Burial Humayun’s Tomb
Succeeded by Akbar
Marriage Hamida Banu Begum

Bega Begum

Bigeh Begum
Chand Bibi

Haji Begum
Miveh Jan
Shahzadi Khanum

Children Akbar, son
Mirza Muhammad Hakim, son
Aqiqeh Begum, daughter
Bakshi Banu Begum, daughter
Bakhtunissa Begum, daughter
Religion Islam
War Attack on India in 1554
Presecessor Babar
Successor Akbar
Duration of Ruling 11 Years

Coronation (राज्याभिषेक)

After the death of Babar On December 26, 1530,Humayun was coronated at the age of 23 on December 30, 1530 AD. Babar had declared Humayun as the successor of the throne before his death. In addition to giving succession to Humayun, Babar had also instructed to divide the elite empire into his brothers. Therefore, he provided Askari Sambhal, Hindal to Mewat and Kamran as the sub-kingdom of Punjab. In this way the division of the empire was one of Humayun’s fierce mistakes, due to which he had to face many internal difficulties and in the past Humayun’s brothers did not support him.

Indeed, this split of imperial empire, proved to be fatal for Humayun in the long run. Although his most powerful enemies were Afghan, but the non-cooperation of the brothers and some personal weaknesses of Humayun proved to be the cause of his failure.

Military campaign (सैन्य अभियान)

Humayun conquered many states under his conquest campaign. Below are the campaigns which run against states.

Invasion of Kalinjar – कालिंजर का आक्रमण (AD 1531)

Humayun had to do the Kalinjar campaign to stop the growing power of ruler Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. Attack on Kalinjar was the first attack of Humayun. At the time of the attack on Kalinjar Fort, he was informed that the Afghan Sardar Mahmood Lodi was moving from Bihar to Jaanpur. Therefore, he went back to Jaunpur with money from King Prataprudra Dev  of Kalinjar.

War of daoharia – दौहरिया का युद्ध (AD 1532)

In August, 1532 AD, there was a confrontation between the army of Humayun and Mahmud Lodi, leading towards Jaunpur, in a place named Dawhariya, in which Mahmud was defeated. Mahmoud Lodi had led the Afghan army in this war.

Chunar cordon – चुनार का घेरा (AD 1532)

During the invasion of Chunar of Humayun, this fort was in the possession of the Afghan protagonist Sher Shah (शेर ख़ाँ). After 4 months continuously surrounded the fort, there was an agreement between the शेर ख़ाँ and Humayun. Under the agreement, the Sher Khan, accepting the submission of Humayun, accepted his son Qutab Khum along with an Afghan military detachment to Humayun’s army, and in return, the fort of Chunar was left in the right of Sher Khan.

It was another big mistake to leave Humayun’s Kher family without losing. Taking advantage of this golden opportunity, the Sher Kha has increased its power and resources. Humayun, on the other hand, wasted his wealth in between and in 1533 AD Humayun in Delhi constructed a huge fort named Dinappanah, whose purpose was to influence friends and enemies.

Humayun successfully pressed the rebellion of Muhammad Zaman Mirza and Muhammad Sultan Mirza in Bihar in 1534 AD.

War with Bahadur Shah (1535-1536 AD)

The ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, took control of Malwa in 1531 AD and the fort of Raisin in 1532 AD. In 1534 AD he attacked Chittor and forced him to the treaty. Bahadur Shah created a better artillery with the help of skilled gunner Rumi Khan of Turkey.

On the other side, Sher Khan earned a lot of respect by defeating Bengal in ‘Raj of Surajgarh’. His growing power was a matter of concern for Humayun, but Humayun’s first problem was Bahadur Shah. There was a confrontation between Bahadur Shah and Humayun in 1535 AD in ‘Sarangpur’. Bahadur Shah was defeated and ran away to Mandu. In this way Malwa and Gujarat came under his control after Humayun conquered Mandu and Champaner. After this Bahadur Shah placed the circle of Chittaur. On this occasion, the mother of Vakramajit, ruler of Chittor, sent a rakhi to Humayun on this occasion and sought help against Bahadur Shah.

However, the request to not help the disbelieving state of Bahadur Shah was accepted by Humayun. After one year, Bahadur Shah again took over Gujarat and Malwa in 1536 AD, in collaboration with the Portuguese, but Bahadur Shah died in February, 1537 AD.

Struggle with Sher Shah (1537-1540 AD)

In October of 1537, Humayun again encircled the fort of Chunar. Qutub Khan, son of Sher Khan (Sher Shah) did not allow Humayun to surrender to the fort for nearly six months. Eventually Humayun captured the fort using diplomacy and artillery. During these six months, Sher Khan got success in the Bengal campaign and deposited most of the treasure of Gaur in the fort of Rohtas.

After the success of Chunar, Humayun conquered Bengal. He remained till 1539 AD in Gaur. On August 15, 1538, when Humayun entered the Gord region of Bengal, he was surrounded by a desolate and dead body. Humayun rebuilt this place and named it ‘Jannatabad’.

Battle of Chausa

On June 26, 1539 AD, there was a conflict between the forces of Humayun and the lion in a place called Chausa, situated on the northern bank of river Ganga. This war was lost to Humayun due to some of his mistakes. There was considerable destruction of the Mughal army in the conflict.

Humayun escaped from the war zone and resorted to a wall and saved his life by crossing the river Ganges. Whilst Bhishti had saved his life in the battle of Chausa, Humayun had made a king of Delhi for a day. After being successful in the battle of Chausa, the lion was equipped with the title of ‘Sher Shah’ (at the time of coronation), and also ordered the name of his name and stamped his coin.

Battle of Bilgram Or Kannauj(17 May, 1540 AD)

In this fight fought in Bilgram and Kannauj, along with Humayun, his brother was Hindal and Asrari, yet the defeat did not leave Humayun with him. After the failure of this war, the sher tigers easily regained control over Agra and Delhi. In this way, the regime of Hindustan once again came under the control of the Afghans.

After defeating Sher Shah, Humayun went to Sindh, where he lived for nearly 15 years as a nomadic life. At the time of this exile, Humayun married Himaida Begum, daughter of Shi’a Mir Baba Dostu, alias ‘Mir Ali Akbarjami’ of Hindal, on August 29, 1541 AD, in the long run, only a great emperor like Akbar was born from Hamida.

Humayun Re-State Reciprocity (हुमायूँ द्वारा पुन: राज्य−प्राप्ति)

Humayun stayed in Kabul for 14 years. Humayun again took possession of Kandahar and Kabul in 1545 AD. After the death of Sher Shah’s son Islam, Humayun got the opportunity to regain the right to India. On September 5, 1554, Humayun reached Peshawar with his army. In February, 1555, he captured Lahore.

War of Machhiwara (15 May, 1555 AD)

Around 19 miles east of Ludhiana, there was a conflict between Humayun and Afghan Sardar Naseeb Khan and Tatar Khan at the place ‘Machhiwara’ situated on the banks of river Sutlej. The result of the conflict remained in favor of Humayun. The entire Punjab came under the authority of the Mughals.

Battle of Sirhind (22 Jun, 1555 AD)

In this struggle, the leadership of the Afghan army was led by Bairam Khan, the leader of Sultan Sikandar Sur and the Mughal army. Afghans were defeated in this conflict. In the auspicious moments of 23rd July, 1555 AD once again, the fortune of Humayun sat on the Takht of Delhi. Dinpanah was his second capital.


After sitting on Delhi’s cottage, it was unfortunate that Humayun was unable to indulge in self-control for a long time. Humayun died due to falling from the stairs of the library located in ‘Dinapnah’ building in January, 1556 AD. About Humayun, historian ‘Lenpul’ has said that, “Humayun became free from this life falling, in the same way, as the whole world was moving down and running”. Humayun has been addressed by Abul Fazl as ‘Insan-e-Kamil’. Humayun was fond of eating opium.

Because Humayun believed in astrology, so he made rules to wear seven colors on seven days of the week. He mainly used yellow color on Sunday, black color on Saturdays and white clothes on Monday.

Establishment of Mughal State

When Humayun died, his son Akbar was 13-14 years old. After Humayun, his son Akbar was declared successor and his patron Bairam Khan was made. Then Hemchandra came to Delhi with army and he drove the mugals out of there. But Hemchandra’s defeat was also on the field of Panipat on November 6, 1556. From that day the dream of the establishment of an independent Hindu kingdom in India broke and the rule of the Mughals under the leadership of Akbar was settled.

Humayun Biography In Hindi and English PDF Download

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Humayun Biography PDF Download

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