Akbar : AD 1556-1605
1. Akbar, the eldest son of Humayun, ascended the throne under the title of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi at the young age of 14 at Kalanaur, Punjab and his tutor Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.
2. Second Battle of Panipat (5 Nov, 1556) was fought between Hemu (the Hindu General of Muhammad Adil Shah) and Bairam Khan (the regent of Akbar). Hemu was defeated, captured and slain by Bairam Khan.
3. This war ended the Mughal-Afghan contest for the throne of Delhi in favour of the Mughals and enabled Akbar to reoccupy Delhi and Agra.
4. Akbar ended the regency of Bairam Khan in 1560 and at the age of 18 assumed the reigns of the kingdom.
5. Akbar was under the influence of Maham Anga and Adham Khan junta from 1560 to 1562. [Petticoat Govt. : 1560-62]
6. In his bid to expand his empire, he conquered various provincial states.
7. The Rajputra kingdom of Mewar put up a fierce defence under Rana Uday Singh (1537-72) and his son Rana Pratap (1572-97)
8. Akbar tried to win over the Rajputras whereever possible and inducted Rajputra kings into Mughals service and treated them at par with Mughal nobility. By marrying Harakha Bai, duaghter of Bharmal/ Biharimal (Kutchchwaha Rajputa Ruler of Amer, Capital-Jaipur) in 1562. Akbar displayed his secular policy with the Hindus. Most of the Rjputa Kings recognised the supremacy of Akbar except Rana Pratap Singh and his son Amar Singh (Sisodiya Rajputas of Mewar, Capital-Chittor).
9. The Battle of Haldighati (1576) was fought between Rana Pratap of Mewar and Mughal army led by Man Singh of Amer. Rana Pratap was defeated but he did not submit and continued the struggle.
|1564||Gondwana (Gadh Katanga)||Rani Durgawati (regent of Bir Narayan)|
|1568||Chittor||Rana Uday Singh|
|1570||Marwar||Chandrasena, Kalyanmal, Raj Singh, Rawal Harirai Bahadur Shah|
|1574-76||Bengal-Bihar||Daud Khan Karrani|
|1585-86||Kashmir||Yusuf Khan and Yakub Khan|
|1590-91||Sindh||Jani Beg Mirza|
|1590-92||Orissa||Kutul Khan and Nisar Khan|
|1595||Baluchistan||Yusufzai Husain Mirza|
|1595||Kandhar||Muzaffar Husain Mirza|
|1597-1600||Ahmadnagar||Chand Bibi (regent of Bahadur Shah)|
|1601||Asirgarh||Miran Bahadur Khan|
10. As a revolt against the orthodoxy and bigotry of religious priests, Akbar proclaimed a new religion, Din-i-IIlahi, in 1851. The new religion was based on a synthesis of values taken from several religions like Hinduism, Islam, Jainism and Christianity. It did not recognize the prophet, Birbal was the only Hindu who followed this new religion. Din-i-IIahi, however, did not become popular.
11. Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Lahore Fort and Allahabad Fort and Humayun’s Tomb at Delhi. Fatehpur Sikri, place near Agra-It is said that Akbar had no son for a long time. Sheikh Salim Chisti, a Sufi saint blessed Akbar with a son who named Salim/Sheikho Baba(Jahangir). In honour of Salim Chisti, Akbar shifted his court from Agra to Fatehpur Sikri.
12. He was patron of the art and in his court many persons flourished.
Important Years of Akbar
|1562||Visited Ajmer first time|
|1562||Ban on forcible conversion of war-prisoners into slaves|
|1563||Abolition of Pilgrimage Tax|
|1564||Abolition of Jaziya|
|1571||Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri|
|1574||Mansabadari System introduced|
|1575||Ibadatkhana was built|
|1578||Parliament of Religions in Ibadatkhana|
|1579||Proclamation of ‘Mazhar’ (written by Faizi)|
|1580||Dahsala Badobast introduced|
|1584||IIahi Samvat i.e. Calendar|
|1587||IIahi Gaz i.e. Yard|
Navaratnas In Akbar’s Court
|Abul Fazal||He was the wazir of Akbar. He wrote Akbarnamal and also led the Mughal imperial army in its war in Deccan|
|Faizi Abul||Fazal’s brother and historian in Akbar’s court. His famous work Lilavati is on Mathematics. Akbar appointed him as teacher for his son.|
|Tansen||Believed to be one of the greatest muscians of all time. He was born to a Hindu family.
He served as the court musician to King Ramchandra of Mewar and was sent in Akbar’s Court.
He accepted Islam at the hands of great Sufi Saint Shaikh Muhammad Ghaus of Gwalior.
It was believed that Tansen made miracle rain such as bringing and fire through his singing of the ragas such as Megh Melhar and Deepak.
|Birbal||Courtier in the administration of Akbar. His actual name was Mahesh Das.
H was conferred the title of Raja by Akbar. He frequently had witty and humorous exchange with Akbar.
|Raja Todarmal||He was Akbar’s finance minister. He introduced standard weights measurement revenue district and officers. His revenue collection arrangement is called Todarmal’s Bandobast.
His systematic approach to revenue collection became a model for the future Mughals as well as British.
|Raja Man Singh||He was the Raja of Amber, a Mansabdar and trusted General of Akbar.
He was grand son of Akbar’s father-in-law Bharmal and the adopted son of Raja Bhagwan Das.
He assisted Akbar in many battles including the well known battle of Haldighatti.
|Abdul Rahim||He was poet and the son of Bairam Khan, known for his Hindi couplets.|
|Faqir Azio Din||He was the chief advisor of Akbar, sufi mystic.|
|Mullah Do Piaza||He was among the Mughal emperor’s chief advisor.|
13. Tulsidas (‘Ramcharitamanas’) also lived during Akbar’s period.
14. When Akbar died, he was buried at Sikandara near Agra.
15. Akbar is considered ‘the real founder of the Mughal empire’ in India.
16. He was the first Mughal ruler who discovered religion from politics.
17. Birbal was killed in the battle with Yusufzai Tribe (1586).
18. Abul Fazl was murdered by Bir Singh Bundela (1601).
19. Akbar gave Mughal India one official language (Persian).
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