Rules of Conjunction with Example PDF
What is Conjunction ?
Conjunction joins two words or sentences. They have no other function except joining. Some Relatives Adjective, Relative verbs and Preposition also do the function of joining, but they are not called conjunction because besides joining they perform the function of joining of Adverbs, preposition, Adjectives also. Conjunction only join and perform no other function.
Rule 1 – Correlative Conjunction
Some conjunctions, called cor-relative conjunction also used in pairs only. Their use is correct in pairs, not otherwise. The more popular are –
Either – Or , Neither – nor , Whether – or, Both – And, Though / Although – Yet, Not only – but also, Lest – should, No Sooner – Than, As much -as. For Example
(i) He is neither strong nor courageous.
(ii) Both Mohan and Ram had passed.
(iii) I will go whether he comes or not.
Position of Correlative Conjunction
The above placed Correlative Conjunction are not only used in pairs but the position of their use in a sentence is also governed by some rules. The basic rule of their use is that one part of the Pair is used in one part of the sentence and the other part of the pair in the other part of the sentence. Further, if the first part of the pair is used before a Noun, the second part should also be used before a Noun, Not before a Verb, Adjective or Adverb. Likewise, if the first part is used before a Verb, Adjective or Adverb, the second part should also be used accordingly. For Example
(i) He gave me not only food but also Shelter.
In this sentence, The use of not only is correct in the first part of the sentence because Not Only is used before a noun Food, and the use of But Also in the second part of the sentence is correct because it is used before a Noun Shelter.
Uses of Conjunction
Either………Or / Neither……….Nor
Either……..Or / Neither…….Nor can be used as Cojunctions and also as Pronouns and adjectives. As Pronouns and Adjectives are used only for two person or things, but as Conjunctions They can be used for two or more than two. Correlative Conjunction they are used for two or more than two persons or things. For Example
(i) Either Kanpur or Lucknow or Agra will be good enough to settle down after retirement.
(ii) Neither Ram nor his father, Nor even his friend could be of any help to me.
After ‘Not Either’ we should use ‘Or’. For Example
(i) This book is not either Exhaustive or up-to-date.
(ii) Your friend is not either reasonable or Fair.
No / Not / Never……….Or
If in a sentence there comes no / not / never, and after them a full clause, the clause would be connected by the conjunction, or not nor. For Example
(i) He has no relation, or Friend who can support him.
(ii) I never lived there,or even went there before.
(iii) He has not a relation or a friend who can support him.
Until / Unless
Both these are negative conjunction, therefore, no negative expression should be used with them, otherwise there would be the fault of double negatives Therefor, such expression as unless he does not help, or ‘until he does not come’ are wrong.Their correct form will be ” Unless he helps” or “Until he comes”.
Note: Here it should also be remembered , Until is a conjunction of time, while Unless is Conjunction of condition, They should not be used in other’s place . For Example
(i) I shall wait until you come.
(ii) I shall fail Unless you help me.
Other / Rather……………Than
After Other / Rather and most of comparative Degree Adjectives the conjunction ‘than’ is used. For Example
(i) I would rather go than stay at home.
(ii) He is stronger than you.
(iii) I would rather have a car than a scooter.
Whether / If
After Whether / If we use the conjunctions ‘ or not ‘ or ‘or no’. For Example
(i) I doubt whether he will help me or not.
(ii) Whether he will help me or not is doubtful.
Note: If a negative or Interrogative sentence has to be made with doubt or doubtful, we should use the conjunction ‘that’ in place of ‘whether’. For Example
(i) I do not doubt that he will help me.
(ii) Is it not doubtful that he will help you ?
The Reason is / The reason Why
Some sentences begin with ‘The reason is’ or ‘the reason Why’. In such sentences the clause coming after them should be connected with the conjunction ‘that’ not with because, due to, or owning to. For Example
(i) The reason is that he did not study seriously.
(ii) The reason why he failed is that he did not study seriously.
When ‘before’ is used as Conjunction, it points to some future event or statement, but future tense is not used with it, even if its Principle clause is in the Future tense. For Example
(i) He will retire before a month has passed.
As If / As though
Both these are imaginary or Conditional expressions. We should therefore, use Past Conditional Tense after them not Present or Future Tense. For Example
(i) He helped me As though he were my son.
(ii) He danced with joy as if he had won the first prize.
Because / In Order That
We use’ because’ to show reason and ‘in order that’ to show purpose. For Example
(i) He failed because he did not work hard.
(ii) He worked hard in order that he may secure first division.
When ‘Since’ is used as a Conjunction, we should use the verb in the Present Perfect Tense Before It and Past Indefinite Tense after it. For Example
(i) I have never seen him since his father dead.
(ii) Many new development have taken place since I left home.
‘While’ is used in two senses.
To show time or period of time, To suggest at the same time or along with. For Example
(i) While the boy sang, the girls danced.
(ii) While there is a life there is hope.
Because / For / since
All these three words show cause or reason. the difference in their use is that Because has a very great force in it, for has the least force and Since come between the two. For Example
(i) He failed because he did not work hard.
(ii) He could not catch me up since he was lazy.
Conjunctions that is used in the following forms
(a) Indirect Narration
Conjunction ‘that’ is used in the Indirect Narration. Not in Direct Narration For Example
(i) He said that he was ill.
(b) ‘That’ as conjunction is not used is Interrogative, Imperative, Optative or Exclamatory clause, whether the whole sentence is in the Direct or Indirect Narration, The use of ‘that’ is wrong in the some sentence. For Example
(i) He asked me that why you are late ?
(ii) He said that may God bless you.!
(c) ‘that’ is not used in clause beginning with Interrogative Pronouns( Why, What, Which etc.) or Interrogative Adverbs ( Where, why, When, how, etc.) The use of ‘that’ is wrong in the following sentence. for Example
(i) He asked that who he was ?
Note: But if after the clauses beginning with Interrogative Pronouns or Interrogative Adverbs, there comes the Principle Clause.For Example
(i) I promise that when I come next I will bring your work.
In this sentence the use of that before When is correct because after the clause beginning with when, there comes the principle clause. “I will bring your work”.
(d) There are some Verbs for which ‘that ‘ as conjunction is used after these verbs ( hope , believe, suppose, presume, be afraid ). Fro Example
(i) I believe that he is right.
(ii) I hope that he is well.
Rule 18 – Conjunction of Comparison
The following conjunction shows Comparison.
as……..as; not so / as………..as; then( with comparative degree adjective ). For Example
(i) This book is not so good as that.
(ii) This book is as good as that
Rule 19 – Conjunction of Condition
The following are conjunction of Condition.
If , Unless, Provided, Provided that, in case, supposing that. For Example
(i) He will succeed provided that he deals honestly.
(ii) I will go alone in case he doesn’t come.
Rule 20 – Conjunction of Concession
The following are conjunction of Concession
Even if, for all, no matter, though, although, however, whatever, adjective / adverbs + as. For Example
(i) No Matter what you say, I will go ahead.
(ii) Though he is poor, he is honest.
Rule 21 – Conjunction of Cause
The following conjunction show cause
as, for, that, considering that, since, seeing that, now that, in that, in as, much as, noun + that, adjective+ that. For Example
(i) Since it is raining, I ca not go.
(ii) Considering that it was very cold, he did not go for swiimming.
(iii) I am glad that he has passed.
Rule 22 – Conjunction of Time
The following are conjunction of time
As soon as, since, until, as, till, while, after, before, When. For Example
(i) I will go When You come.
(ii) Wait for me till I return.
Download Rules of Conjunction In English Grammar With Examples PDF
Candidates can download rules for Conjunction In English grammar with examples pdf file by clicking on below link.
All the best for your upcoming exam!
Read more articles….