What is Internet?
Internet: It is a global connection of the network. It is used for the Wide Area Network / global area network that connect computers, spread all over the world. It is the network of network. Internet consists of inter connection of networks of various types. It is a public Network . Through internet we can share text data, audio, video data. Internet is govern by Internet Society (ISOC ) and no one owner of the internet.
Some Important Notes about Internet
- Intranet: Intranet is a small network as compared to Internet. It is a private network. It is owned by any company or firms.
- ARPANET: ARPANET link was established between three location i. e. California, Los Angles and Standards Research Institute in 1969. ARPANET was divided into ARPANET for the general public and MILNET.
- World Wide Web ( WWW ): The World Wide Web came into being in 1991, and the concept given by Tim Berners- Lee. The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. Hypertext is one method of presenting information in which certain items are highlighted. By selecting the highlighting text, You can obtain more information on the same topic. Tim Berners-Lee introduces WWW to the public on August 6, 1991.
There are the some of the major software components required to access the Internet.
- Software for the internet access is the Operating System. An Operating System must be installed properly on your system.
- Internet Browser: Internet Browser is a software that allows the user to access and read information on the World Wide Web , Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Netscape navigator are the best known browser.
- Firewall: Internet has many security problems like Hacking, Trojan Horse, Virus etc. There are various tools top provide protection against unwanted access to your computer by anyone else. A firewall helps to keep your computer more secure.
- TCP / IP Protocols: This is a group of protocols that define the Internet and communication method used by it. In order to be compatible to the Internet, the computer must have TCP / IP protocols compatible software. The major advantage of Internet is Information sharing.
- Modem: connect computer with phone line.
- Internet Service Provider ( ISP ): Internet Service Provider which connect us to internet and charges amount for its services. ISP has computers called Servers which remains permanently connected to other computer on the net. ISP provides us username and password to connect to internet. At present it is VSNL ( Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited ) which is dominating the internet scene in Imdia through its GIAS ( Gateway Internet Access Service ). the other service providers in India are MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam limited ), Mantraon-line, and Satyam online
- Internet was available for some time through ERNET and it was made available for commercial use by VSNL, Since August 1995. Presently Vsnl operates in the following six metros. i.e. New Delhi, Chennai, Calcutta, Mumbai, Bangalore and Pune.
- Web Browser: To access the World Wide Web, you use what is called a Web Browser. Browser are sometimes also called Web Clients, since they get information from server. When you start a WWW browser or follow a hyperlink, the browser (acting like a client ) send a request to a site on the Internet. That site (acting like a server ) returns a file which the web browser then has to display.
Features of the Web Browser
- The Web Browser should be able to connect to various sites to access information on internet .
- Another feature of Web Browser is to have a number of other commands available through menus, icons and buttons.
- Main feature of the Web Browser is to search the information on the current page as well as search the WWW.
- It also give the facility to save the web page on your computer system.
- Web Browser should be able to handle text, images of the World Wide Web, as well as the hyperlinks to digital video, or other types of information.
- Most important feature of any Browser is easy to use.
Types of Web Browser
There are different type of Browser available now a days. These browser are-:
- Netscape Navigator
- Internet Explorer
- Mozilla firefox
- Google Chrome etc.
First Web Browser was Mosaic developed in 1993. Netscape Navigator was second Browser developed in 1994 and Microsoft introduced Internet Explorer as browser in 1995.
Exploring the Internet using Browser:
To Start Internet -> Double Click on Browser’ s icon on your desktop.
Tool Bars of the Browser
- Back Button: Lets you return to pages you’ ve viewed, beginning with the most recent. Right-Click the Back Button and select from a list of recently visited sites.
- Forward: Lets you move forward through pages you have viewed using the Back Button. Right-Click the Forward Button and select from a list of recently of visited sites.
- Stop: Halts the process of downloading a Web page. Click this If You want to stop downloading a page for any reason.
- Refresh: Updates any web page stored in your disk cache with the latest content. Refresh Button gets the Information directly from the server and reload Button gets information from your disk cache.
- Home: Returns to your Home Page. You can designate any web page as your Home Page.
- Search: Display a choice of popular Internet search engine in the left pane. Your search results appear in the left pane. When we click a link, the page appears in the Right pane, so you don’ t lose sight of your search results.
- Favorite: Displays a list of the sites you have marked. Click any item in the list to jump to it.
- History: Shows a list of the Web Sites you’ ve visited.
- Print: Prints the page you have viewing. This is one way to save Information from the internet so that you don’t have to reconnect to view it again. You can even print the URL, associated with each hyperlink, making it easy to navigate to the site later.
- Edit: Open a file in the Microsoft Word, word processor that contains the HTML, code for the page you are viewing so you can see and even edit it.
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ): There are two main modes of transferring file over the World Wide Web, one is FTP ( File Transfer Protocol ) and other is HTTP ( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ) which is the set of rules for transferring files ( such as Text, Graphic Images, Sound, Video and other Multimedia File ) on the World Wide Web. HTTP is an application protocol that runs on top of the TCP / IP suite of Protocols. Whereas, FTP is used to trnsfer bu;k files.
Facility on the Internet
- Chatting: Chatting known as Instant Messaging. In this type of communication participants type messages to other Chat Group participants and receive response instantly which they can reach on the screen. Some sites also provide audio / video chat that may be performed with the help of web cam.
- Upload and Download: Copying the file from the external sources to the computer known as Downloading and sending file or data from your computer to the external source is known as Uploading .
- Search Engine: Search Engine is a website that allows you to search desired information from a vast database of web pages on WWW. Any word found on the web pages visited by the search engine are stored in the search engine database.
Search Engine were introduced like LYCOS in 1993, WEB CROWLER in 1994, YAHOO and ALTA
- E- Mail ( Electronic Mail ): E-mail allows us to send and receive message. You can attach picture, video, sounds to your email messages, E-mail address can be obtained free or with cost from yahoo, indiamates, hotmail, gmail etc.
In 1971, E-mail address format using @ was created to separate user id and domain name. Compuserve became the first service provider to offer email facility to PC users in 1979.
Folders on E-mail Page
- INBOX -> Contains the received messages.
- Sent / OUTBOX -> Contains the messages you have sent to others.
- Compose -> This link opens the page where you write the message for sending to others.
- Spam / Bulk -> Unwanted commercial messages.
- Drafts -> Messages you have created but not sent.
- Trash -> The received messages those you have deleted.
E-Mail Address Format
fac.manav2018 -> user name
gmail -> Host name
.com -> types of Domain
Uniform Resource Locator (URL ): A URL is a formatted text string used by Web Browsers, E-mail clients
and other software to identify a network resource on the Internet. Network resources are files that can be plain Web Pages, other text documents, Graphics or programs.
Format of the URL
http -> hyper text transfer protocol
www -> world wide web
affairsguru -> domain name
.com -> types of domain
Important Notes about Network Components
- E-Mail is Developed: Ray Tomlinson introduces network E-mail in 1972. The First Messaging System to send messages across a network to other users.
- TCP is Developed: Vintom Cerf and Robert khan design TCP durng 1973.
- First Commercial Network: A commercial version of ARPANET known as Telenet is introduced in 1974 and are considered by many to be first Internet Service Provider ( ISP ).
- Ethernet is conceived: Bob Metcalfe develops Ethernet idea in 1973.
- DNS is Introduced:Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postal b introduce DNS in 1984 .
- Hyper Text markup language ( HTML ): In 1990 Tim Berners- Lee develops HTML, which made contibution to how we navigate and view the Internet today.
Some Popular Terms on Internet
- Internet Relay Chat ( IRC ): IRC is multi-user chat network people around the world can chat and talk in channels or in private. To use IRC you must install IRC client on your computer, Using this client, You can connect to an IRC server, which is connected to other IRC networks.
- Social Networking: A Social Network is a network of individual which have some sort of independence on each other. This independence may be in the form of friendship, common causes and so on. A Social Networking service may be offered through a web site on the internet. Some of the popular Social Networking services are- Orkut, Twitter, Linkedln, Myspace, Friend Finder, Facebook etc.
- Blog: Blog is a website where entries are written as information or news on a particular subjects. You can choose any subject for writing a blog like food, health or Information about anything.
- Apache: The most common web server ( or HTTP server ) software on the internet. Apache is an open- source application originally created from a series of changes ( ” Patches” ) made to a web server written at the National Center for Supercomputing Application , the same place the Mosaic web browser was created.
- Archie: A tool ( software ) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites . You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it. By 1999, Archie had been almost completely by web – based search engines.
- Extranet: An extranet that is accessible to computers that are not physically part of a company’ s ownprivate network, but that is not accessible to the general public, for example to allow vendors and business partners to access a company website. Often an Intranet will make use of a Virtual Private Network ( VPN ).
- BITNET ( Because it ‘s Time Network ); A Network of educational sites separate from the internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged BITNET and the Internet , a popular form of e-mail discussion, originated on BITNET. At its peak (the late 1980′ s and early 1990 ‘s ) only International Network that is shrinking.
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