Hi Aspirants,

Scientific instruments are part of laboratory equipment, but are considered more sophisticated and more specialized than other measuring instruments as scales, meter sticks, chronometers, thermometers or even power or waveform generators.

List of Scientific Instruments and their uses

Instruments Usage
Altimeter Measures altitude (Used In Aircraft )
Ammeter Measures strength of electric current
Anemometer Measures force and velocity of Wind and directions.
Audiometer Measures Intensity of Sound
Barograph Continuous recording of atmospheric pressure
Barometer Measures atmospheric pressure
Binoculars To view distant objects
Bolometer To measure heat Radiation
Callipers Measures inner and outer diameter of bodies
Calorimeter Measures quantities of heat
(ECG )
 Traces movement of heat; recorded on a Cadiogram
Cathetometer Determines heights, measurement of levels, etc. In scientific experiments
Chronometer Determine longitude of a vessel at sea
Colorimeter Compares Intensity of colours
Commutator To change / reverse the direction of electric current. Also used to convert AC into DC
Cryometer It is a type of thermometer used to measure very low temperatures usually close to 0 C
Cyclotron A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged particles to high energies
Dilatometer Measures changes in volume of substances
Dyanamo Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
Dynamometer Measures electrical power
Electro Encephalo
Grameg (EEG )
Measures and records electrical activity of brain
Electrometer It measures very small but potential difference in electric currents
Electroscope Detects presence of an electric charge
Electromicroscope It is used to obtain a magnifying view of very small objects capable of magnifying up to 20,000 times
Endoscope To examine internal parts of the body
Fathometer Measures depth of the ocean
Fluxmeter Measures magnetic flux
Galvanometer Measures electric current
Hydrometer Measures the relative density of liquids
Hygrometer Measures level of humidity
Hydrophone Measures sound under water
Hygroscope Shows the changes in atmospheric humidity
Hypsometer To determine boiling point of liquids
Wavemeter To measure the wavelength of a radiowave
Wattmeter To measure the power of electric current
Voltmeter To measure electric power potential difference between two points
Viscometer Measures the viscosity of liquids
Vemier Measures small sub-division of scale
Venturimeter To measure the rate of flow of liquids
Ultrosonoscope To measure and use ultrasonic sound (beyond hearing ); use to make a ecogram to detect brain tumours, heart defects and abnormal growth
Udometer Rain gauge
Transponder It is used to receive a signal and transmit a reply immediately
Tonometer To measure the pitch of a sound
Thermostat It regulates the temperature at a particular point
Thermometer It measures temperature
Telescope To view distant objects in space
Teleprinter Receives and sends typed messages from one place to another
Telemeter Records physical happening at a distant place
Tangent Galvanometer It measures the strength of direct current
Tacheometer A theodolite adapted to measure, elevations and bearings during survey
Kymograph Graphically records physiological movement
(e.g., Blood Pressure / Heartbeat )
Lactometer Measures the relative density of milk
Machmeter It determines the speed of an aircraft in terms of the speed of sound
Magnetometer It is used to compare magnetic movements of magnets and fields.
Manometer Measures the pressure of gases
Micrometer It measures distances / angles.
Microphone Converts sound waves into electrical vibrations
Microscope To obtain a magnified view of small objects
Nephetometer Measures the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquid
Ohmmeter To measure electrical resistance in ohms
Ondometer Measures the frequency of electromagnetic waves, especially in the radio- frequency band.
Periscope To view objects above sea level (used in submarines)
Photometer Compares the luminous intensity of the source of light.
Polygraph Instrument that simultaneously records changes in physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood-pressure and respiration; used as a lie detector.
Pyknometer It determines the density and coefficient of expansion of liquids.
Pyrheliometer Measures direct beam solar irradiance.Sunlight enters the instrument through a window and is directed onto a thermopile which converts heat to an electrical signal that can be recorded.
Pyrometer Measure very high temperature.
Quadrant Measures altitude and angles in navigation and astronomy.
Radar It is used to detect the direction and ranges of an approaching aeroplane by means of radiowave, (Radio, Angle, Detection, and ranges ).
Radio Micrometer Measures heat radiation
Refractometer Measure refractive indices.
Salinometer Determines the salinity of solutions
Sextant It is used by navigators to find the latitude of a place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star; also used to measure the height of very distant objects.
Spectroscope To observe or record spectra.
Spectrometer Spectroscope equipped with calibrated scale to measure the position of spectral lines (Measurement of refractive indices ).
Spherometer Measures curvature of spherical objects.
Sphygmometer Measures Blood- Pressure
Stereoscope To view two- dimensional pictures.
Stethoscope It is used by doctors to hear and analyze heart and lung sounds.
Stroboscope To view rapidly moving objects.
Tachometer It is used to determine speed, especially the rotational speed of a shaft (used in aeroplane and motor- boats ).


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