Rules of Punctuation With Examples In English Grammar – PDF

Rules of Punctuation With Examples In English Grammar – PDF

As we know, that Punctuation Mark have a great importance in every Language. Punctuation mark make the meaning and sense of  the sentence clear and precise. Wrong punctuation marks can distort the meaning and cause confusion in the mind of the reader. Sometimes they can completely change the entire meaning of the Sentence. Therefore we give below all the important Punctuation marks and explain how and where they are to be used.  The following are the important punctuation explained with rules marks used in the English Language.

Full Stop (.)

Rule 1 :

Full Stop (.) is used at the end of every complete and Assertive sentence Except the Interrogative and Exclamatory sentences.

Rule 2 :

A Full Stop (.) is used after every letter of an Abbreviation. Such As M.L.A, M.P, It is also used in the shorthand expressions.  etc., e.g., op., cit.

Note  : (i). Full stop mark are not used after Mr & Mrs also.

(ii). Full Stop mark are not used after every letter in very popular abbreviation. Such As UNESCO, WHO, UNO

(iii).  1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th also don’t take Full stops marks after them.

Comma(,)

It is the smallest pause and used in the following conditions.

Rule 1 :

To separate a series of words of the same part of the speech from each other. But the number of such words in the same series should not be less than three. Before the last word in the series conjunction ‘and’  is added, and before the ‘and’ a comma may or may not be used. Example :

(i). I have seen Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Bangalore. ( a comma can also be used before ‘and’.)

(ii). There are in this zoo all kinds of birds, animals, reptiles, and monkeys. (The comma before ‘and’ can be removed also.)

Rule  2 :

To separate pairs  of words in same series. Examples

(i). There sell here books and magazines, note-books and diaries, greeting cards and picture books.

(ii). High and low, rich and poor, proud and humble, all assemble here.

Rule  3 :

To separate two or more than two Adverb or Adjectives phrases coming after each other. For Example

(i). Thereupon, at last, he broke down.

(ii). Then, after waiting for more than an hour, we saw him coming out.

Rule 4 :

To separate small co-ordinate clauses in  a compound sentence. For Example.

(i). He came, he saw, he conquered.

(ii). The weather was pleasant, the wind was calm, the hills all round were green.

(iii). Storms may blow and cloud may burst, but i must go.

Note :No comma is used when two co-ordinate clause are connected with a co-ordinate conjunction.)

Rule 5 :

To mark a nominative of address or Vocative Subjects. For Example

(i). Ram, what are you doing ?

(ii). What will you do now, my friend ?

Rule 6 : 

To separate a Nominative absolute. For Example

(i). This done, we proceed further.

(ii). The weather being pleasant, we proposed to go one a picnic.

(iii). Having reached there, he addressed a public meeting.

Rule 7 :

Comma is used to separate a Noun  and Phrase in apposition. A Comma is placed on both the sides of such noun and phrases. For Example

(i). Nelson, the great wrestler, has won.

(ii). Milton, the great poet, was blind.

(iii). Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of nations, is worshiped as an apostle.

Rule 8 :

On both the sides of Phrases that can be developed into a sentence, and which is not merely a qualifying phrase. For Examples

(i). Gandhi, have acquired the degree of Bar- at- law, returned to India.

(ii). Our team, having won the series, returned last month.

Rule 9 :

On both the side of typical words , phrases or clauses used within a sentence. For Example

(i). He, however, did not return before sunset.

(ii). He is, after all, your brother and your must help him.

(iii). Let us not, I pray you, part like this.

Rule 10 :

Comma(,) is used in placed of word left out in a sentence. specially a verb ( Left out as understood.). For example

(i). He received a medal; I, a prize.

(ii). You went to Calcutta; he, to Bombay.

(ii). He secured 1st division; I, to 2nd.

Rule 11 :

To separate an Adverbial Clause from The Principal clause, But is the adverbial clause comes after the Principle Clause, no comma is used. For Example

(i). I you go to office, Please submit my application.

(ii). When I was at Kanpur, I met your father.

(iii). Inform me when you come back.

Rule 12 :

A Comma (,) is placed between the name of the person and his Degrees or Titles. If there are several Degrees, a comma is placed after each degree. For Example

(i). B.K Acharaya, M.A, Ph.d, D.lit

(ii). Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, Governor of Utter Pradesh

Rule 13 :

A Comma(, ) marks is also used between a long subject and its Verb. for Example :

(i). All that he said before he sat sail, was long remembered by all.

(ii). Whatever he spoke from the pulpit on the Christmas Day, turned out to be true.

Rule 14 :

To separate a noun clause from the Verb of the Principal Clause, If the Noun Clause comes immediately before the principal clause. For example :

(i). Whatever is, is right.

(ii). Whoever comes, is welcomes.

(iii). That is a rogue, no one could believe.

Rule 15 :

To separate a Direct quotation form the rest of the sentence. For Example :

(i). He said, ” I am a sailor”.

(ii). “What will you do”, he asked, ” If I with draw my help ? ”

(iii). ” Go home”, said my father, ” and help your brother.”

Colon (: or 🙂

After Full Stop (.), the next complete pause is expressed by (:) Colon. The Colon can be written as (: or 🙂 It is used in the following cases.

Rule 1 :

Before writing a quotations. For Example :

(i) Bacon says : “Reading Maketh a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man”.

Rule 2 :

Before drawing a list of some articles of giving Examples. For Example

(i). The Principal cities in India are :  Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Bangalore etc.

(ii). Pencils, Pens, Rubbers, Papers, Ink : these are the articles sold here.

Rule 3 : 

Before gramatically independent but closely connected sentences. For Example

(i). He can never deceive anyone : he is an absolutely honest person.

Semicolon (;)

Semicolon (;) mark is used in the following cases. For Example

Rule 1 :

Between the clauses of the compound sentence when these clauses can be converted into complete independent sentences. For Example

(i). He is the strongest candidate; even his rival admit this fact.

(ii). This is the best book available here; all good students read this book.

Rule 2 :

To separate co-ordinate clauses in a compound sentence when they are connected by a conjunction, and when commas have also been used  in them. For Example

(i). He was a brave, respectable person; and he was loved and admired by all.

(ii). The event was thrilling, exciting and momentous; and everyone watched it with bated breath.

Rule 3 :

A Semicolon is also used between  the co-ordinate clauses of a compound sentence, which are not joined by any conjunction and which have their separate subjects. For Example

(i). The train halted; the passenger rushed forward; the vendors and hawkers had their good sale.

(ii). The bell rang; the students assembled for prayer; the principal addressed them; the day work was resumed.

Interrogation ( ? )

Marks of interrogative is used at the end of an interrogative sentence in the Direct Interrogative form. For Example

(i). Are you going home ?

(ii). Do you know him ?

(iii). Why do you want to meet him ?

But in Indirect narration the Interrogative Sentence is converted into an Assertive Sentence. and therefore a Full Stop is used in place of Mark of Interrogation. For Example

(i). He asked me why I wanted to meet him.

(ii). He asked me whether I was going home.

Dash ( _ )

Dash is used in the following cases.

Rule 1 :

In case of sudden stoppage or change of thoughts or feeling. For Example

(i). If I were born in those exciting times_but what is the use of such broodings ?

Rule 2 :

To collect scattered or stay thoughts. For Example

Houses, cottages, farm_houses, cattle-sheds, grain-stocks-all were damaged in the flood.

Exclamation (!)

Marks of Exclamation is used at the end of exclamatory sentences, or after an interaction or any words or phrase suggestive of some sudden feeling. For Example

(i). Alas ! he is ruined.

(ii). May you live long !

Parentheses ( Brackets )

Parenthetic words, phrases and clauses are written with brackets. They keep the parentheses separate from their main sentence. The parentheses have no grammatically connection with the main sentences. For Example

He gained from heaven ( it was all he wished ) a friend. (Gray)

Inverted Commas (”     “)

Inverted commas are used to mark out the exact words of a speaker or a quotation. Double inverted commas are used at the beginning and end of a statement or a quotation using exact words. If there is a quotation with a quotation, the internal quotation is closed within Single Inverted Commas,  and the whole sentence or quotation within Double Inverted Commas. For Example

He said, “I have consulted several reference books, but I have not been able to understand the correct meaning of Child is father of the man “.

Hyphen (-)

The mark of hyphen is smaller than the Dash mark, and it is used to make compound words. For Example

(i). Father-in-law, Mother-in-law, passer-by etc.

  • It is also used to connect the first part of a word at the end of a line, the second part of which is carried over to the beginning of the next line. For Example

(i). He said that he was going to rusticate the naughty boy.

Apostrophe ( ‘ )

Rule 1 :

Apostrophe is used to make a possessive case. For Example

Ram’s house, Girls’s School, Mohan’s Book etc.

Rule 2 :

Sometimes some words are shortened by dropping out some letters from their spellings, and in place of those letters an apostrophe is used. For Example

(i). He didn’t go.

Rule 3 :

To write o’clock, apostrophe is used.

Rule 4 :

To make plural of letters or figures. For Example

(i). 1’s, 2’s ,3’s,4’s

(ii). he is not cut t’s.

Punctuation and Its Rules  With Examples PDF

Candidates can view and download the rules of Punctuation Mark and Its type with example pdf by clicking on below link.

Rules of Punctuation In English Grammar


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